The detection of a brain tumor through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is still challenging when the image is in low quality. Image segmentation could be done to provide a clear brain tumor area as the region of interest. In this study, we propose an improved model-based clustering approach for MRI-based image segmentation. The main contribution is the use of the adaptive neo-normal distributions in the form of a finite mixture model that could handle both symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns in an MRI image. The neo-normal mixture model (Nenomimo) also resolves the limitation of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and the generalized GMM (GGMM), which are limited by the short-tailed form of their distributions and their sensitivity against noise. Model estimation is done through an optimization process using the Bayesian method coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, and it employs a silhouette coefficient to find the optimum number of clusters. The performance of the Nenomimo was evaluated against the GMM and the GGMM using the misclassification ratio (MCR). Finally, this study discovered that the Nenomimo provides better segmentation results for both simulated and real data sets, with an average MCR for MRI brain tumor image segmentation of less than 3%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4892
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • Bayesian
  • Image segmentation
  • MCMC
  • MRI
  • Mixture model
  • Neo-normal


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