We reported in this study the interrelation between the addition of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 wt. % reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) into PVA/Alginate and their degradation and biocompatibility properties. The r-GO was synthesized by using the Hummer’s method. A crosslinker CaSO4 was added to prepare Alginate/PVA/r-GO Hydrogel composite. A Field Emission in Lens (FEI)-scanning electron microscopy (SEM), along with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), was performed, characterizing the morphology of the composite. A compressive test was conducted, determining the mechanical properties of the composite with the highest achieved 0.0571 MPa. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity was conducted to determine the biocompatibility properties of the studied composite. An MTT assay was applied to measure cell viability. In general, the presence of r-GO was found to have no significant effect on the morphology of the hydrogel. Indeed, adding 0.4% r-GO to the PVA/Alginate increased the cell viability up to 122.26 ± 0.93, indicating low toxicity. The studied composites have almost no changes in weight and shape, which proves that low degradation occurred in addition to this after 28 days of immersion in saline phosphate buffer solution. In conclusion, achieving minimal degradation and outstanding biocompatibility lead to PVA/Alginate/r-GO hydrogel composites being the most attractive materials for tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number534
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Alginate/PVA/r-GO composite
  • biocompatibility
  • degradation
  • hydrogel
  • tissue engineering


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