The rapid developments of storage technology and information exchange encourage the development of research in the field of information security. In the process of sending information, tamper and issues about data ownership may occur. The fragile watermarking is one technique that can overcome the problem, in which this technique exploits sensitivity to tamper with the inserted watermark components. Therefore, it is not tolerable to change even only one bit. Self-embedding can be defined as some important features obtained from a selected image as a watermark by modifying the pixel value of the original image. Once a picture which has been inserted with a watermark is modified by other users, it can be used for tamper detection and recovery images. Due to the importance of this fragile watermarking scheme, this paper discusses the principles and characteristics of a fragile watermarking algorithm. The main contribution of this paper survey is that it summarises the current mechanisms of selection, generation, method of watermark insertion, detection and tamper localisation and recovery procedures. Comparison of several watermarking techniques was analysed and presented in tabular form, as well as experimental evaluation of four watermarking schemes in many graphs to show the performance of the self-embedding fragile watermarking scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalEurasip Journal on Image and Video Processing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • Fragile watermarking
  • Image authentication
  • Image recovery
  • Self-embedding


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