A review of lignocellulosic-derived nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Lignin nanoparticles, xylan nanoparticles, and cellulose nanocrystals

Christian J. Wijaya, Suryadi Ismadji, Setiyo Gunawan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-toxicity, lignocellulosic-derived nanoparticles are very potential materials for drug carriers in drug delivery applications. There are three main lignocellulosic-derived nanoparticles discussed in this review. First, lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) are an amphiphilic nanoparticle which has versatile interactions toward hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs. The synthesis methods of LNPs play an important role in this amphiphilic characteristic. Second, xylan nanoparticles (XNPs) are a hemicellulose-derived nanoparticle, where additional pretreatment is needed to obtain a high purity xylan before the synthesis of XNPs. This process is quite long and challenging, but XNPs have a lot of potential as a drug carrier due to their stronger interactions with various drugs. Third, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a widely exploited nanoparticle, especially in drug delivery applications. CNCs have low cytotoxicity, therefore they are suitable for use as a drug carrier. The research possibilities for these three nanoparticles are still wide and there is potential in drug delivery applications, especially for enhancing their characteristics with further surface modifications adjusted to the drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number676
JournalMolecules
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • Drug delivery system
  • Lignin nanoparticles
  • Lignocellulosic biomass
  • Xylan nanoparticles

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