A Review of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-Based Photocatalyst for Oilfield-Produced Water Treatment

Hadi Nugraha Cipta Dharma, Juhana Jaafar*, Nurul Widiastuti, Hideto Matsuyama, Saied Rajabsadeh, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Nurul Natasha Mohammad Jafri, Nuor Sariyan Suhaimin, Atikah Mohd Nasir, Nur Hashimah Alias

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)


Oilfield produced water (OPW) has become a primary environmental concern due to the high concentration of dissolved organic pollutants that lead to bioaccumulation with high toxicity, resistance to biodegradation, carcinogenicity, and the inhibition of reproduction, endocrine, and non-endocrine systems in aquatic biota. Photodegradation using photocatalysts has been considered as a promising technology to sustainably resolve OPW pollutants due to its benefits, including not requiring additional chemicals and producing a harmless compound as the result of pollutant photodegradation. Currently, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has gained great attention as a promising photocatalyst due to its beneficial properties among the other photocatalysts, such as excellent optical and electronic properties, high chemical stability, low cost, non-toxicity, and eco-friendliness. However, the photoactivity of TiO2 is still inhibited because it has a wide band gap and a low quantum field. Hence, the modification approaches for TiO2 can improve its properties in terms of the photocatalytic ability, which would likely boost the charge carrier transfer, prevent the recombination of electrons and holes, and enhance the visible light response. In this review, we provide an overview of several routes for modifying TiO2 . The as-improved photocatalytic performance of the modified TiO2 with regard to OPW treatment is reviewed. The stability of modified TiO2 was also studied. The future perspective and challenges in developing the modification of TiO2-based photocatalysts are explained.

Original languageEnglish
Article number345
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • TiO
  • oilfield-produced water (OPW)
  • photocatalyst
  • photodegradation


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