A technical and economic model for end-of-life (EOL) options of industrial products

Hartmut Kaebernick*, Maria Anityasari, Sami Kara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


In the field of sustainable manufacturing, many research efforts have been focused on the redesign of products towards improved disassemblability and recyclability. However, recycling as an end-of-life (EOL) option is only the first step towards sustainable manufacturing. A more efficient strategy is the reuse of the components, sub-assemblies or entire products. The decision between using an old component or producing a new component depends on a variety of parameters with many uncertainties. This paper presents a decision making model, integrating technical, economic and environmental considerations for the product's evaluation. The model uses new parameters such as the product value, representing the technical status of a component, or the environmental value, representing the life cycle impact of a component. The model is used for comparing the values of a new component with an old component, thus supporting the decision between reuse, remanufacture or disposal. Furthermore, the model can be used to investigate redesign suggestions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-183
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Decision making model
  • Recycling
  • Reuse
  • Sustainable manufacturing


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