A Toolbox of Subarrays for Optimizing Wide-Angular Scanning Arrays Using Trade-Offs between Scan Loss and Side Lobe Level

Fannush S. Akbar, L. P. Ligthart, Gamantyo Hendrantoro*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A novel approach is proposed for building a planar array derived from linear arrays using a toolbox of different types of subarrays located parallel and perpendicular to the linear array axes. The array design assumes constant element patterns and focuses on rectangular array applications with one dimensional, wide-angular beam scanning. Optimization criteria concern a trade-off between side lobe level performance, directive gain scan-loss, reducing the number of element controls and maximizing the use of phase-only elements for beam steering. All subarray configurations and functionalities, for improving the full array performance in sidelobe level and scan-loss compensation, are analyzed and validated in detail. The step-by-step integration of different subarrays starts from the center part of the array. This center part is a linear subarray along the major axis of the rectangular array with uniform maximum amplitude and spatially stretched. This subarray is combined with cross-line subarrays perpendicular to this center axis. At both edges of the center array, two in-line, uniform-amplitude and stretched subarrays are added and combined with cross-line subarrays. The amplitude distribution of the 3 in-line subarrays and the cross-line subarrays allows for lowering the sidelobe level in the plane of scanning. Finally, at both ends of the three in-line subarrays, subarrays with two and five elements are applied for reducing the scan-loss. By assuming cos(\vartheta) element pattern results are given for a planar rectangular array with 41 elements length and 3 elements width. To lower cost and higher power efficiency, the array uses only 33 multi-bit phase shifters, 12 1-bit phase switches, and 4 attenuators for amplitude control. Optimized broadside and 60° scanning patterns are compared and show improved performance in directive gain D=24.4 dBi (broadside), D=19.9 dBi (60°) and in \text {SLL}=-21.6 dB (broadside), \text {SLL}=-19.5 dB (60°).

Original languageEnglish
Article number9326309
Pages (from-to)16337-16359
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Subarray
  • scan-loss compensation
  • scanning
  • sidelobe level


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