A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

Siti Zullaikah, Chao Chin Lai, Shaik Ramjan Vali, Yi Hsu Ju*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

328 Citations (Scopus)


A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60°C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100°C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as γ-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1889-1896
Number of pages8
JournalBioresource Technology
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Acid-catalyzed methanolysis
  • Biodiesel
  • Degumming/dewaxing
  • Free fatty acids
  • Phospholipids
  • Rice bran oil
  • γ-Oryzanol


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