Advancement of Bismuth-Based Materials for Electrocatalytic and Photo(electro)catalytic Ammonia Synthesis

Wahyu Prasetyo Utomo, Michael K.H. Leung, Zongyou Yin, Hao Wu*, Yun Hau Ng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Ammonia (NH3) plays a vital role in the fertilizer industry, nitrogen-containing chemical production, and hydrogen storage. The development of electrocatalytic and photo(electro)catalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) to synthesize NH3 are desirable, which are more environmentally friendly than the conventional Haber–Bosch process. Due to the strong nonpolar bonding of the N-N bond, the discovery of efficient catalysts is essential to overcome the high kinetic barrier. Here, bismuth-based materials that show proven activities for NRR are highlighted. The fundamental knowledge, including thermodynamics, mechanisms, reaction systems, evaluation aspects of NRR, and product quantification, is introduced. Together with scientific reasoning and exhibited activities, the strategies for improving the performance are discussed in detail. Perspective and outlook, as well as the opportunities to further develop bismuth-based materials for NH3 synthesis, are provided. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the advancement in this field and serves as a guide for the future design of highly efficient NRR catalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106713
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


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