Aluminum leaching from water treatment sludge using hydrochloric acid and kinetic study

Agus Mirwan, Meilana Dharma Putra*, Jhy Chern Liu, Susianto, Ali Altway, Renanto Handogo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Water treatment sludge (WTS) is abundantly produced in the world; the waste contributes to the environmental problems. Therefore, for WTS utilization, aluminum leaching was employed using hydrochloric acid in this study. Al leaching efficiency increased from 72% to 80% as hydrochloric acid concentration increased from 1 to 4 M. Decreasing the particle size and increasing the temperature increased Al leaching efficiency. The proposed kinetic model revealed that the rate-controlling step followed a series of two leaching mechanisms: initially controlled by product-layer diffusion and then by a chemically controlled reaction. For instance, at 70 °C, the initial stage is well fitted by product-layer diffusion (R2 = 0.87) compared to R2 = 0.60 for chemical reaction; while for the second stage, R2 = 0.95 was observed via chemical reaction compared to R2 = 0.74 for product-layer diffusion. The activation energies in these two stages were 9.58 kJ/mol and 10.73 kJ/mol, respectively. The proposed model was well validated by using data from literature and thus will be useful for other applications of leaching and extraction processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25553-25562
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • Chemical surface
  • Diffusion
  • Environmental problem
  • Mechanism
  • Model
  • Removal
  • Waste


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