An Advanced Clustering Protocol Based on Modified Differential Search Algorithm for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Kun Nursyaiful Priyo Pamungkas, Waskitho Wibisono*, Supeno Djanali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been widely applied to monitor objects in harsh and hazardous environments. The limited energy resource in WSN is a major problem. Energy efficiency is required for WSN to operate for a long time. The cluster in WSN is a strategy that can help to extend the life of the network. However, the optimal cluster formation and cluster head (CH) selection is a non-deterministic polynomial-time hard problem. Besides, many clustering-based protocols build clusters after defining the cluster heads among all sensor nodes on the network. This process triggers inefficient energy consumption. Furthermore, the unbalanced load between CH and cluster members (CMs) also affects the network lifetime. This paper proposes an advanced clustering protocol based on a modified differential search algorithm to save energy consumption and extend network life. To form clusters, this protocol determines the optimal number of clusters. In this proposed protocol, CH selection takes place at the cluster level. The process of cluster formation and CH selection is proposed by utilizing a modified differential search algorithm. Furthermore, the rotation system and the determination of relay nodes are proposed to control the load distribution. The proposed protocol's performance is compared with various data gathering protocols for WSN, namely LEACH, PEGASIS, LEACH-GA, and HFAPSO. The experimental results show that the proposed protocol can increase network lifetime in terms of First Node Dies (FND), Half of Nodes Die (HND), and Last Node Dies (LND). On average, the MDSAC protocol increases FND by 1596 rounds, 2456 rounds, 1211 rounds, and 1060 rounds compared to LEACH, PEGASIS, LEACH-GA, and HFAPSO. The MDSAC protocol also increases the average HND by 5764 rounds, 4918 rounds, 5221 rounds, and 4308 rounds compared to other comparison protocols. Even the MDSAC protocol managed to improve the average LND of 7784 rounds, 8739 rounds, 9001 rounds, and 7161 rounds, compared to the four comparison protocols. These results highlight the contribution of the proposed approach in maintaining network lifetime in WSN as one of the important challenges in WSN research and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-71
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2021


  • Clustering
  • Data gathering
  • Differential search algorithm
  • Wireless sensor networks


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