We describe an immersed-boundary technique which is adopted from the direct-forcing method. A virtual force based on the rate of momentum changes of a solid body is added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The projection method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The second-order Adam-Bashford scheme is used for the temporal discretization while the diffusive and the convective terms are discretized using the second-order central difference and upwind schemes, respectively. Some benchmark problems for both stationary and moving solid object have been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the current method in handling fluid-solid interactions.
- Projection method
- Virtual force