An improved olympic hole-filling method for ultrasound volume reconstruction of human spine

D. E.O. Dewi*, T. L.R. Mengko, I. K.E. Purnama, A. G. Veldhuizen, M. H.F. Wilkinson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hole-filling in ultrasound volume reconstruction using freehand three-dimensional ultrasound estimates the values for empty voxels from the unallocated voxels in the Bin-filling process due to inadequate sampling in the acquisition process. Olympic operator, as a neighbourhood averaging filter, can be used to estimate the empty voxel. However, this method needs improvement to generate a closer estimation of the empty voxels. In this paper, the authors propose an improved Olympic operator for the Hole-filling algorithm, and apply it to generate the volume in a 3D ultrasound reconstruction of the spine. The conventional Olympic operator defines the empty voxels by sorting the neighbouring voxels, removing the n% of the upper and lower values, and averaging them to attain the value to fill the empty voxels. The empty voxel estimation can be improved by thresholding the range width of its neighbouring voxels and adjusting it to the average values. The method is tested on a hole-manipulated volume derived from a cropped 3D ultrasound volume of a part of the spine. The MAE calculation on the proposed technique shows improved result compared to all tested existing methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-40
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • 3D reconstruction
  • Hole-filling
  • Improved olympic operator
  • Spine
  • Ultrasound


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