Analysis of Human Performance and Potential Application of Virtual Reality (VR) Shooting Games as a Shooting Training Simulator for Military Personnel

Adithya Sudiarno*, Ratna Sari Dewi, Retno Widyaningrum, Reza Aulia Akbar, Yupit Sudianto, Wahyu Andy Prastyabudi, Ahmadi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Shooting is one of the essential abilities that military personnel must regularly train. One technology that can be applied to the military shooting sector is the Virtual Reality (VR) shooting game. This technology is a shooting training simulator for Military Personnel. This study compares the shooting performance of military personnel in both real and virtual environments. The researchers analyzed the learning curve of the shooting performance, measured the degree of reality, immersive level, and usability of the VR shooting games, and tested the potential application of the simulator. The result showed that the shooting accuracy and precision in real and virtual shooting conditions do not significantly differ. This means that using a VR shooting game simulator can represent the training conditions in the actual shooting range. The shooting speed in virtual environments is related to the stages of the shooter (position, breath control, aiming, and trigger control), which are influenced by human performance factors (shock, vibration, and gun explosions). In addition, the shooting performance when practicing virtual shooting increased significantly, proving a learning curve for adapting to virtual environments in the simulator. VR shooting games had a total SUS score of 81.1, categorized as Grade A usability or excellent usability. Based on the results of the Pearson correlation test, there is a strong positive relationship between the SUS questionnaire and Presence Questionnaire (0.908), SUS and Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire (0.802), and Presence Questionnaire and Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire (0.814). Good usability in VR shooting games positively influences the degree of reality and can make participants feel a high presence when shooting virtually. Thus, VR shooting games are appropriate to support military shooting training for military personnel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-98
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Cognitive
  • Human Performance
  • Military Personnel
  • Shooting Training
  • Virtual Reality


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