Analysis of material characteristics as mimic of cancer tissue for 3D anthropomorphic phantom

Fithrotun Nisa, Ajeng Hefdea, Retno Kurniya, Rizki Amaliya, Fathul Jannah, Isfina Uniatunada, Fakhrusy Rizqy Ramadhan, Aditya Prayugo Hariyanto, Levina Almira, Endarko*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


The ease of manufacturing human phantoms using 3D printing technology is a breakthrough for quality assurance tools in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology with a more accessible and more cost-effective technique. However, a challenge arises to identify suitable materials and achieve cancer tissue equivalency. This study evaluates the characteristics and determines the appropriate material to mimic cancer tissue in a 3D anthropomorphic phantom. The material samples consisted of agar, gelatin, agarose, polyester resin, and silicon rubber. All samples were synthesized and printed into a cylindrical mold made of 95% polylactic acid (PLA) with a diameter of 3 cm and thickness of 1 cm. Calcium powder (Ca), salt (NaCl), and silica gel (SiO2) were added to some materials to expand the range of CT number or Hounsfield Unit (HU) values to adjust the attenuation characteristics of the actual cancer tissue. The material samples were tested with CT scan equipment, and the HU value was measured using RadiAnt DICOM Viewer software. The results obtained that agar, gelatin, and agarose material have an average HU value in the same range as the actual cancer tissue, namely 4 to 47, 14 to 31, and-19.47 to 21.84 HU, respectively. This agreement is further confirmed by relative electron density (RED) values for agar, gelatin, and agarose materials of 1.03, 1.02, and 1.00, respectively. These RED values are equal to the actual RED value of cancer tissue, which is 0.99. Besides, this study also evaluates the CT image quality and HU value of material based on tube voltage variation. The results show that the average HU value on the CT image gives a less significant difference and has a small variation in the HU range from 80 to 140 kV voltage. Therefore, it can be concluded that agar, gelatin, and agarose can be used as mimic materials of cancer tissue, and the HU value is not significantly affected by the tube voltage variation factor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number060001
JournalAIP Conference Proceedings
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 16 Aug 2023
Event11th International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Physics: The Spirit of Research and Collaboration Facing the COVID-19 Pandemic, ICTAP 2021 - Virtual, Online, Indonesia
Duration: 27 Oct 202128 Oct 2021


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