Analysis of the effect of the 2021 Semeru eruption on water vapor content and atmospheric particles using GNSS and remote sensing

Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi*, Arizal Bawasir, Syachrul Arief, Amien Widodo, Meifal Rusli, Deni Kusumawardani, Yessi Rahmawati, Ana Martina, Putra Maulida, Hilda Lestiana

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Mount Semeru, an active volcano in East Java, Indonesia, erupted on December 4, 2021, following extreme rainfall that caused an avalanche of hot pyroclastic flows and lava. The tropospheric conditions and dominant particle components in the atmosphere can be monitored using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology and remote sensing satellites. GNSS signal propagation delay in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing can be used to determine Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) and Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) variables so that atmospheric conditions can be generated. In addition, by using remote sensing satellite data, it is possible to obtain rainfall data with high temporal resolution as well as the dominant particle and gas content values during eruptions. During the eruption period, the high value of PWV was dominated by the high intensity of precipitation during the rainy season. High rainfall before the eruption caused activity inside the mountain to increase, which occurred in avalanche type eruption. Apart from that, the atmosphere around Semeru was also dominated by SO2 content, which spreaded for tens of kilometers. SO2 content began to be detected significantly by remote sensing sensors on December 7, 2021. In this study, deformation and atmospheric monitoring were also carried out using low-cost GNSS at the Semeru Monitoring Station on September 9–15, 2022. The results of the ZTD and ZWD values show the dominance of the wet component, which is directly proportional to rainfall activity in this period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalGeodesy and Geodynamics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • GNSS
  • Rainfall
  • SO
  • Semeru
  • Water vapor


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