12 Citations (Scopus)


Window-opening is one of the most important adaptive behaviours affecting indoor thermal comfort as well as household energy consumption in the tropics. In this study, large-scale surveys were conducted in major cities of Malaysia and Indonesia to extract various typical daily patterns of window-opening, air conditioning (AC) usage and fan usage among occupants in the tropics through a data mining approach based on a cluster analysis. Furthermore, influential factors for window-opening patterns, focusing especially on contextual factors and household attributes, were determined through a logistic regression analysis. As a result, several typical daily patterns of window-opening, AC usage and fan usage were extracted, respectively, even under the same hot-humid climate. It was found that household size, age of respondent, household income and concerns about insects were the most influential factors for daily window-opening patterns. The results of this study will fill the existing knowledge gap in driving factors of occupant behaviour in the tropics in which few studies have been conducted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10650
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2020


  • Adaptive behaviour
  • Air conditioning
  • Natural ventilation
  • Tropics
  • Window-opening


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