Anionic dye removal by immobilized bacteria into alginate-polyvinyl alcohol-bentonite matrix

Adi Setyo Purnomo*, Frida Wahyu Hairunnisa, Misdar, Virda Putri Maria, Alya Awinatul Rohmah, Surya Rosa Putra, Herdayanto Sulistyo Putro, Hamdan Dwi Rizqi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Methyl orange (MO) is commonly used in the textile dyeing industry, posing serious health and environmental hazards due to its carcinogenic, mutagenic properties, and potential for bioaccumulation. Appropriate handling is needed to solve these problems by harnessing the capacity of living microorganisms and the adsorption properties of bentonite clay minerals. Although the conventional approach predominantly depends on free cells, recent study has developed other methods such as immobilization techniques. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the efficiency of the immobilization matrix comprising sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and bentonite by modifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Ralstonia pickettii for MO removal of 50 mg/L. In the free cell technique, the results showed that the MO decreased to 43.13, 36.61, and 27.45% for each of the bacteria within 10 days at 35 °C. The bacterial immobilization technique, including live immobilized P. aeruginosa (LIPa), live immobilized B. subtilis (LIBs), and live immobilized R. pickettii (LIRp) beads also demonstrated significant efficiency, achieving MO removal rates up to 97.15, 95.65, and 66.63% within 10 days. These synthesized beads showed reusability, with LIPa, LIBs, and LIRp being used up to 4, 4, and 2 cycles, respectively. The external and internal surface conditions were observed using SEM instrument and the results showed that all components were agglomerated. Comparisons using dead bacterial biomass indicated that treatment with live bacteria consistently yielded significantly higher removal rates. These results showed the effectiveness of immobilized bacteria in MO removal, offering a promising potential in reducing pollutants.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere27871
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2024


  • Bacteria
  • Bioremediation
  • Immobilization
  • Methyl orange
  • Pollution


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