Yohanna Camelia Bengan Sait*, Harmin Sulistiyaning Titah, Uridna Marwah Luthtansa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lead occurs naturally in nature at low concentrations. Its concentration increases in the presence of other lead pollutant sources. It has high toxicity and harms to the environment (soil, air, and water) and humans. Handling heavy metal pollution in waters by utilizing local plants, including mangroves, has been widely reported. Mangroves is a potential phytoremediation agents. The aims of the study was to determine the dynamics system of the accumulating Pb by Avicennia alba based on the value of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the value of the translocation factor (TF). The sampling location was at Wonorejo Mangrove Forest Ecotourism in Surabaya. Samples were taken in the form of water, sediment, roots, stems, and leaves of A. alba and those samples were analysed to detect Pb concentration using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the average concentration of Pb in water were 0.1 mg/L to 6 mg/L. The average concentration of Pb in the sediment were 0.1 mg/kg to 7.59 mg/kg. The Pb sedimentation process can be shown based on the higher Pb concentration in the sediment than Pb concentration in the water. Based on the data and dynamic system modeling, there was a relationship between all components of A. alba with environmental media. The phytoremediation processes of Pb metal by A. alba were sedimentation, phytostabilization, and phytoextraction. A. alba has potentially as a phytoremediator in polluted coastal areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-163
Number of pages11
JournalMalaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • BCF
  • Dynamic system
  • Lead
  • Mangrove Avicennia alba
  • Phytoremediation
  • TF


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