Biodiesel production from reutealis trisperma oil using KOH impregnated eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst

Kusmiyati Kusmiyati*, Didik Prasetyoko, Siwi Murwani, Muthiah Nur Fadhilah, Titie Prapti Oetami, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto, Widayat Widayat, Arief Budiman, Achmad Roesyadi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This research paper describes the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (Potassium hydroxide (KOH)-impregnated eggshell) from waste chicken eggshell using the wet impregnation technique. In this experiment, the catalyst was derived from eggshell that was calcined at 800 C for 5 h. It was impregnated with KOH at various KOH concentrations (10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%). The best catalyst was obtained by eggshell impregnated with 20% KOH concentration. This result was supported by the analysis of the catalyst characterization using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), which showed that the catalyst contained CaCO3 and CaOH groups. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) was also used to analyze the types of mineral contained in the catalyst, including calcium, potassium, sulfur, and other impurities. It revealed that the optimum minerals were found in the KOH-impregnated eggshell (20%) catalyst of 94.42% calcium, 5.06% potassium, and a small amount of other impurities. These optimum minerals serve as active sites to increase the biodiesel yield. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the catalyst samples appear as small, spherical, homogenous, and solid particles. The catalytic activity was investigated by the transesterification of Reutalism trisperma oil in various types of catalyst (KOH-impregnated eggshell, eggshell, and KOH-impregnated CaO), percentages of catalyst loading (weight of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) and molar ratios (methanol to oil of 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, 12:1, and 15:1) for 60 min at 60 C. The result indicated the optimum catalyst loading was 5 wt% with an 84.57% biodiesel yield. While the best molar ratio was 12:1 (methanol:oil) with a 97.95% biodiesel yield. The optimum condition was gained using a molar ratio of 12:1, 5 wt% catalyst loading, and KOH-impregnated eggshell with a 94% biodiesel yield.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3714
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sept 2019


  • Biodiesel
  • Eggshell
  • Heterogeneous catalyst
  • Reutalism trisperma oil
  • Transesterification


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