This paper proposes a dual watermarking scheme that can integrate the functions of authentication, copyright protection, and image recovery in the same cover image. The robust watermarking utilizes a single watermark using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain for copyright protection, while the fragile scheme utilizes two self-embedding watermarks in a spatial domain for authenticating and restoring digital image content. The mechanism of the two schemes is carried out sequentially and uses a block-based approach. A new blind robust watermarking is proposed using a quantitative property of intermediate frequency coefficient for embedding and adaptive embedding strength selection to balance transparency and robustness. Fragile watermarks are inserted into a robust watermarked image based on the improved replacement approach of the least significant bits. Experimental results show that the proposed method can withstand various processing attacks; enhance the accuracy of deceptive localization with good visual quality of image recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Authentication
  • Copyright protection
  • Tamper detection and recovery
  • Watermarking


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