Blind robust image watermarking based on adaptive embedding strength and distribution of quantified coefficients

Lusia Rakhmawati*, Wirawan Wirawan, Suwadi Suwadi, Claude Delpha, Pierre Duhamel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The image watermarking technique is a reliable method for protecting digital image rights. The most widely used digital imaging format is the JPEG (joint photographic expert's group). This paper proposes a novel reversible robust watermarking scheme based on the JPEG image. In JPEG image, quantified Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients with varying frequency provide varied capacities and embedding deformities. To minimize total distortion for the watermarked image, we adaptively select embedding strengths and coefficients from effective frequency selection that produce less embedding distortions. Then, by weighting the difference between the quantified DCT coefficient and the DCT coefficient on the block, an advanced block selection strategy is used to the corresponding distortion, which are produced from the whole quantified alternating current (AC) shift capacity and half of the insertion capacity. The experimental results show that the proposed method can maintain good visual quality while requiring little bitstream expansion and is robust to geometrical and image processing attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115906
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Volume187
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Copyright protection
  • Discrete Cosine Transform
  • Robust watermarking

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