Bullet Frangibility Factor Quantification by Using Explicit Dynamic Simulation Method

Widyastuti Widyastuti*, Holly Indi Ramadhian, Mas Irfan Purbawanto Hidayat, Adhy Prihatmiko Wibowo, Hosta Ardhyananta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Frangible bullets have a unique property that disintegrates into fragments upon hitting a hard target or obstacle. This peculiar ability to become fragments after impact is called frangibility. In this study, frangibility testing was carried out theoretically via modeling using the explicit dynamics method with ANSYS Autodyn solver integrated by ANSYS Workbench software. This paper aims to analyze frangibility through two main factors: material properties and projectile design. The results show the scattering and remaining bullet fragments after impact. According to the modeling results, the frangibility factor values are 9.34 and 10.79, respectively. Based on the frangibility factor, errors based on the frangibility factor by comparing the experimental results and simulations for AMMO 1 and AMMO 2 are 10.5% and 1.09%. Based on simulation results, the AMMO 2 design bullet scattering pattern shows several scattering particles more than the AMMO 1 design, with the furthest distance scattering AMMO 1 and AMMO 2 bullets being 1.01 m and 2658 m.

Original languageEnglish
Article number79
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • explicit dynamics
  • frangibility
  • frangibility factor
  • frangible bullets


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