Characterization of physical and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane foam

Puput Wiyono*, Faimun, Priyo Suprobo, Heppy Kristijanto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In home construction, rigid polyurethane foams have been widely used as nonstructural component such as thermal insulation or sound absorbser material, and as structural component such as core of sandwich panel. For structural component, it is necessary to study the behavior of the material first, how the cells are constructed, also to get the physical and mechanical properties. Those two properties are the main items to be able to design the sandwich panel or to make a further analysis. This investigation was made to reveal several things such as density, microscopic foam structure, material strength, modulus, poison's ratio, and failure mode in tension, compression and shear, based on American Standard Testing Method (ASTM). This research, by microscopic observation, states that this foam is categorized as an anisotropic material, where strength in longitudinal (L) direction (foam rise direction) is stronger than that in transverse (T) direction, with geometric anisotropic ratio of 2.2. For the foam density of 48.5 kg/m3, the test yielded compressive strength and modulus of, respectively, 358.221 kPa, and 11602.8 kPa. Consistent with the results from other researchers, higher density gives higher compressive strength and modulus. For tensile mode, it is also obtained values of tensile strength 229 kPa in L direction and 393 kPa in T direction, tensile modulus in L and T direction, respectively, are 929 kPa and 3256 kPa, strains to failure are respectively 0.276 and 0.334 and poisson's ratio is 0.184 on longitudinal-based specimen. For shear mode, we get 228 kPa for shear strength and 3240 kPa for shear modulus. The patterns of stress-stress curve from compression and tension test, give us an indication that this foam is classified as elastic plastic foam.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14398-14405
Number of pages8
JournalARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Anisotropic material
  • Compression
  • Microscopic observation
  • Shear
  • Tension


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