The study of ionospheric disturbances associated with the two large strike-slip earthquakes in Indonesia was investigated, which are West Sumatra on 2 March 2016 (Mw = 7.8), and Palu on 28 September 2018 (Mw = 7.5). The anomalies were observed by measuring co-seismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The results show positive and negative CIDs polarization changes for the 2016 West Sumatra earthquake, depending on the position of the satellite line-of-sight, while the 2018 Palu earthquake shows negative changes only due to differences in co-seismic vertical crustal displacement. The 2016 West Sumatra earthquake caused uplift and subsidence, while the 2018 Palu earthquake was dominated by subsidence. TEC anomalies occurred about 10 to 15 min after the two earthquakes with amplitude of 2.9 TECU and 0.4 TECU, respectively. The TEC anomaly amplitude was also affected by the magnitude of the earthquake moment. The disturbance signal propagated with a velocity of ~1–1.72 km s-1 for the 2016 West Sumatra earthquake and ~0.97–1.08 km s-1 for the 2018 Palu mainshock earthquake, which are consistent with acoustic waves. The wave also caused an oscillation signal of ~4 mHz, and their azimuthal asymmetry of propagation confirmed the phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere. The CID signal could be identified at a distance of around 400–1500 km from the epicenter in the southwestern direction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number401
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Acoustic wave
  • Co-seismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs)
  • Earthquake
  • GNSS


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