Comparing the performance of Kernel PCA Mix Chart with PCA Mix Chart for monitoring mixed quality characteristics

Muhammad Ahsan*, Muhammad Mashuri, Hidayatul Khusna

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Along with the development of information and technology, the quality characteristics of a product cannot be monitored separately in the different types of control charts. In the past, conventional control charts were developed to monitor only one type of quality characteristic. The variable control charts are used to observe the variable or metric quality characteristics. Meanwhile, in monitoring non-metric characteristics or categorical data, attribute control charts are employed. To accommodate these two types of data, the PCA Mix control chart is suggested to simultaneously monitor these two types of data in one chart. However, some drawbacks occur when this chart is applied to monitor non-metric data which has an imbalanced proportion. Therefore, the Kernel PCA Mix control chart is created to overcome the gaps that occurred in the PCA Mix chart. Similar to the previous chart, this chart is also constructed using Hotelling’s T2 statistics with Kernel Density Estimation control limit. Several simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed control charts. The simulation results show that the proposed chart has a better result than the previous control chart, especially for a small mean shift with an imbalanced proportion of non-metric data. However, the PCA Mix chart has a similar performance to the proposed chart when it is applied to monitor the balanced proportion of categorical data with a large mean shift. The application with simulated data with various scenarios and the real-world case also shows that the Kernel PCA Mix chart performs better compared to the performance of the PCA Mix chart.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15723
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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