Using the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers in Japan, we compared ionospheric responses to five explosive volcanic eruptions 2004–2015 of the Asama, Shin-Moe, Sakurajima, and Kuchinoerabu-jima volcanoes. The TEC records show N-shaped disturbances with a period ~ 80 s propagating outward with the acoustic wave speed in the F region of the ionosphere. The amplitudes of these TEC disturbances are a few percent of the background absolute vertical TEC. We propose to use such relative amplitudes as a new index for the intensity of volcanic explosions. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Ionospheric disturbance
- Volcanic explosion