Contributions of TMAH Surfactant on Hierarchical Structures of PVA/Fe3O4–TMAH Ferrogels by Using SAXS Instrument

Sunaryono*, Ahmad Taufiq, Nandang Mufti, Hendra Susanto, Edy Giri Rahman Putra, Siriwat Soontaranon, Darminto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The magnetic hydrogels combining polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) and Fe3O4 (magnetite)–TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) have been successfully fabricated via a Freezing-thawing route. The magnetite nanoparticles were prepared from iron sands by using coprecipitation method. The transmission electron microscopy image revealed that the magnetite nanoparticles with a reaction temperature of 30 °C had the average particle size of 12 nm in clusters of aggregation. The result was similar to the particle size obtained from X-ray diffraction data analyzed by Scherer equation. Furthermore, synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering data were analyzed by using two lognormal distributions to calculate the distribution of the individual magnetite particles. Meanwhile, Teubner-Strey and Beaucage models were employed to observe the distribution of magnetite particles coated by TMAH as a surfactant. The data analysis showed that the magnetite particles within the magnetic hydrogels formed aggregations with diameters of cluster particles in the range from 13.1 to 31.8 nm. Interestingly, the diameter of clusters particle increased from 13.1 to 31.8 nm along with the increasing concentration of ferrofluids from 1 to 15 wt%. This phenomenon was predicted to result from the effect of TMAH as a surface reactant agent that prevented the aggregation by coating the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2206-2212
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018


  • Freezing-thawing process
  • Magnetic hydrogel
  • Magnetite
  • SAXS
  • TMAH


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