Decentralized recommender system for ambient intelligence of tourism destinations serious game using known and unknown rating approach

Yunifa Miftachul Arif*, Duvan Deswantara Putra, Dyah Wardani, Supeno Mardi Susiki Nugroho, Mochamad Hariadi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Tourism destinations serious game (TDSG) requires the ability to respond to players through recommendations for selecting appropriate tourist destinations for them as potential tourists. This research utilizes ambient intelligence technology to regulate the response visualized through a choice of serious game scenarios. This research uses the Multi-Criteria Recommender System (MCRS) to produce recommendations for selecting tourist destinations as a reference for selecting scenario visualizations. Recommender systems require a decentralized, distributed, and secure data-sharing concept to distribute data and assignments between nodes. We propose using the Ethereum blockchain platform to handle data circulation between parts of the system and implement decentralized technology. We also use the known and unknown rating (KUR) approach to improve the system's ability to generate recommendations for players who can provide rating values or those who cannot. This study uses the tourism theme of Batu City, Indonesia, so we use personal characteristics (PC) and rating of destinations attribute (RDA) data for tourists in that city. The test results show that the blockchain can handle decentralized data-sharing well to ensure PC and RDA data circulation between nodes. MCRS has produced recommendations for players based on the KUR approach, indicating that the known rating has better accuracy than the unknown rating. Furthermore, the player can choose and run the tour visualization through game scenarios that appear based on the recommendation ranking results.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14267
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Ambient intelligence
  • Blockchain
  • Decentralized
  • MCRS
  • Recommender system
  • Serious game
  • Tourism destinations


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