Design of 1 × 2 MIMO Palm Tree Coplanar Vivaldi Antenna in the E-Plane with Different Patch Structure

Nurhayati Nurhayati*, Eko Setijadi, Alexandre Maniçoba de Oliveira, Dayat Kurniawan, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this paper, 1 × 2 MIMO of Palm Tree Coplanar Vivaldi Antenna is presented that simulated at 0.5–4.5 GHz. Some GPR applications require wideband antennas starting from a frequency below 1 GHz to overcome high material loss and achieve deeper penetration. However, to boost the gain, antennas are set up in MIMO and this is costly due to the large size of the antenna. When configuring MIMO antenna in the E-plane, there is occasionally uncertainty over which antenna model may provide the optimum performance in terms of return loss, mutual coupling, directivity, beam squint, beam width, and surface current using a given substrate size. However, the configuration of E-plane antenna in MIMO has an issue of mutual coupling if the distance between elements is less than 0.5λ. Furthermore, it produces grating lobes at high frequencies.We implement several types of patch structures by incorporating the truncated, tilt shape, Hlbert and Koch Fractal, Exponential slot, Wave slot, the lens with elips, and metamaterial slot to the radiator by keeping the width of the substrate and the shape of the feeder. The return loss, mutual coupling, directivity, beam squint, beamwidth, and surface current of the antenna are compared for 1 × 2 MIMO CVA. A continuous patch MIMO has a spacing of 0.458λ at 0.5 GHz, which is equivalent to its element width. From the simulation, we found that Back Cut Palm Tree (BCPT) and Horizontale Wave Structure Palm Tree (HWSPT) got the best performance of return loss and mutual scattering at low-end frequency respectively. The improvement of directivity got for Metamaterial Lens Palm Tree (MLPT) of 4.453 dBi if compared with Regular Palm Tree-Coplanar Vivaldi Antena (RPT) at 4 GHz. Elips Lens Palm Tree (ELPT) has the best beam squint performance across all frequencies of 0°. It also gots the best beamwidth at 4.5 GHz of 3.320. In addition, we incorporate the MLPT into the radar application.

Original languageEnglish
Article number177
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Coplanar Vivaldi Antenna
  • bandwith
  • mutual coupling
  • radiation pattern


Dive into the research topics of 'Design of 1 × 2 MIMO Palm Tree Coplanar Vivaldi Antenna in the E-Plane with Different Patch Structure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this