The rapid development of electric vehicle (EV) technologies promises cleaner air and more efficient transportation systems, especially for polluted and congested urban areas. To capitalize on this potential, the Indonesian government has appointed PLN, its largest state-owned electricity provider, to accelerate the preparation of Indonesia's EV infrastructure. With a mission of providing reliable, accessible, and cost-effective EV charging station infrastructure throughout the country, the company is prototyping a location-optimized model to simulate how well its infrastructure design reaches customers, fulfills demands, and generates revenue. In this work, we study how PLN could maximize profit by optimally placing EV charging stations in urban areas by adopting maximal covering location model. We use data from the city of Surabaya, Indonesia, in our experiments and take into account the two main transportation modes for the locals to charge: electric motorcycles and electric cars. Numerical experiments with 11 candidate EV charging station locations and the projected number of electric vehicles in the early penetration phase across 98 sub-districts throughout the city show that only four charging stations are needed to cover the whole city, given the charging technology that PLN has acquired, but consumers' time-to-travel is exceptionally high (about 35 minutes), which could lead to poor consumer service and hindrance toward EV technologies. Sensitivity analysis reveals that building more charging stations could reduce the time, but comes with higher costs due to extra facility installations. Adding layers of redundancy to buffer against outages or other disruptions also incurs larger costs but could be an appealing option to design a more reliable and thriving EV infrastructure. The model can provide insights to decision-makers to devise the most reliable and cost-effective infrastructure designs to support the deployment of electric vehicles and much more advanced intelligent transportation systems in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2022 IEEE 25th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2022
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665468800
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event25th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2022 - Macau, China
Duration: 8 Oct 202212 Oct 2022

Publication series

NameIEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC


Conference25th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2022


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