Recently, the issue of food authentication has gained attention, especially halal authentication, because of cases of pork adulteration in beef. Many studies have developed rapid detection for adulterated meat. However, these studies are not yet practical and economical methods and instruments and a faster analysis process. In this context, this paper proposes the Optimized Electronic Nose System (OENS) for more accurately detecting pork adulteration in beef. OENS has advantages such as proper noise filtering, an optimized sensor array, and optimized support vector machine (SVM) parameters. Noise filtering is carried out by cross-validation with different mother wavelets, i.e., Haar, dmey, coiflet, symlet, and Daubechies. The sensor array was optimized by dimension reduction using principal component analysis (PCA). An algorithm is proposed for the optimization of the SVM parameters. An experiment was conducted by analyzing seven classes of meat, comprising seven different mixtures of beef and pork. The first and seventh classes were 100% beef and 100% pork, respectively, while the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth classes contained 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of beef in a sample of 100 grams, respectively. Sample testing was carried out for 15 minutes for each sample. The classification test results to detect beef and pork had an accuracy of 98.10% using the optimized support vector machine. Thus, OENS has a favorable performance to detect pork adulteration in beef for halal authentication.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9288697
Pages (from-to)221700-221711
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Electronic nose
  • adulteration
  • beef
  • halal authentication
  • optimized SVM
  • pork


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