Circular economy (CE) is an interesting approach by many countries to address global environmental problems while gaining economic benefits. The implementation of CE is expected to minimize the use of resources and materials, thus contributing to sustainable development. Much literature has discussed CE assessment indicators and their evaluation, however to date, no single indicator has been proposed that can comprehensively measure the macro level of CE implementation. This study aims to develop a CE index to measure CE implementation at macro levels. In addition, it provides an overview of the impact of CE implementation on the financial, social, and environmental aspects of the economy. To this end, first, an in-depth literature review and descriptive analysis is conducted to identify existing global CE indicators and classify them into financial, social, and environmental categories based on available primary and secondary data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-215
Number of pages8
JournalManagement Systems in Production Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023


  • CE index
  • Indonesia
  • circular economy
  • macro level
  • mathematical equation


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