Diffusion flame synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using urea assisted precursor solution

Widiyastuti*, Adhi Setiawan, Heru Setyawan, Kusdianto, Tantular Nurtono, Suci Madha Nia, Sugeng Winardi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Hydroxyapatite (HA) or (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in orthopedics and dental applications for human bone implant and teeth filler due to their biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Fine to nanoparticles of HA with appropriate stoichiometry and purity are preferred because they enhance densification and bioactive properties. Here, we reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in a diffusion flame reactor. LPG mainly consisting of butane and propane was used as fuel and compressed air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. The effects of urea adding into precursor on morphology and crystallinity of the generated particles were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe particles morphology and crystallinity, respectively. Purity of the generated particles was analyzed quantitatively from XRD pattern using Rietveld method. Spherical shape of particles morphology was obtained for particles synthesized without urea added into precursor. Increasing fuel flow rate and urea concentration led to further disintegration of the generated particles. Nano sized particles were generated using fuel flow rate of 1 L/min and 30 w% concentration of urea added into precursor. However, increasing urea concentration led to the increase of tricalcium phosphate as a further reaction of hydroxyapatite for flame generated by using LPG as fuel of 1 L/min.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication4th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Symposium, NNS 2011 - An International Symposium
Number of pages3
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes
Event4th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Symposium, NNS 2011 - Bali, Indonesia
Duration: 23 Sept 201125 Sept 2011

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference4th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Symposium, NNS 2011


  • bioactive material
  • crystallinity
  • impurity
  • morphology
  • particle size


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