4 Citations (Scopus)


Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 was successfully synthesized with a direct double coating of carbon and nitrogen using a solid-state method followed by the pyrolysis process of polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the addition of fluoride is successfully doped to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12 without any impurities being detected. The carbon and nitrogen coating are distributed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12particles, as shown in the Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows a thin layer of carbon coating on the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 has the highest specific discharge capacity of 165.38 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and capacity fading of 93.51% after 150 cycles compared to other samples, indicating improved electrochemical performance. This is attributed to the synergy between the appropriate amount of carbon and nitrogen coating, which induced a high mobility of electrons and larger crystallite size due to the insertion of fluoride to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12, enhancing lithium-ion transfer during the insertion/extraction process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Direct double coating
  • Fluoride-doped Li4TiO
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Solid-state method


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