Drowsiness estimation using electroencephalogram and recurrent support vector regression

Izzat Aulia Akbar, Tomohiko Igasaki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


As a cause of accidents, drowsiness can cause economical and physical damage. A range of drowsiness estimation methods have been proposed in previous studies to aid accident prevention and address this problem. However, none of these methods are able to improve their estimation ability as the length of time or number of trials increases. Thus, in this study, we aim to find an effective drowsiness estimation method that is also able to improve its prediction ability as the subject's activity increases. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) data to estimate drowsiness, and the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) for drowsiness evaluation. Five parameters (α, β/α, (θ+α)/β, activity, and mobility) from the O1 electrode site were selected. By combining these parameters and KSS, we demonstrate that a typical support vector regression (SVR) algorithm can estimate drowsiness with a correlation coefficient (R2) of up to 0.64 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of up to 0.56. We propose a "recurrent SVR" (RSVR) method with improved estimation performance, as highlighted by an R2 value of up to 0.83, and an RMSE of up to 0.15. These results suggest that in addition to being able to estimate drowsiness based on EEG data, RSVR is able to improve its drowsiness estimation performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number217
JournalInformation (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Driving environment
  • Drowsiness estimation
  • EEG
  • Support vector regression


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