Effect of Steel Hardness and Composition on the Boundary Lubricating Behavior of Low-Viscosity PAO Formulated with Dodecanoic Acid and Ionic Liquid Additives

Wahyu Wijanarko*, Hamid Khanmohammadi, Nuria Espallargas*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two ionic liquids, tributylmethylphosphonium dimethylphosphate (PP) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (BMP), as lubricant additives in polyalphaolefin (PAO8) were studied under boundary lubricating conditions on two types of steel (AISI 52100 bearing steel and AISI 316L stainless steel). The tribological behavior of these ILs was compared with dodecanoic acid, a well-known organic friction modifier. This study employs a ball-on-disk tribometer with an alumina ball as a counterpart. A range of advanced analytical tools are used to analyze the tribofilms, including scanning electron microscopy equipped with a focused ion beam, scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used to study the surface adsorption of the additives on iron- and stainless steel-coated sensors to reveal the adsorption kinetics, adsorbed layer mass, and bonding strength of the adsorbed layer on the metallic surfaces. The most important factors controlling friction and wear are the thickness and viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layer, the thickness and chemical composition of the tribofilm, and the hardness and chemical composition of steel. Among all additives studied, BMP on stainless steel gives a strongly adsorbed layer and a durable tribofilm, resulting in low friction and excellent antiwear properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2777-2792
Number of pages16
JournalLangmuir
Volume38
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2022

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