Embedded Machine Learning Using a Multi-Thread Algorithm on a Raspberry Pi Platform to Improve Prosthetic Hand Performance

Triwiyanto Triwiyanto*, Wahyu Caesarendra*, Mauridhi Hery Purnomo, Maciej Sułowicz, I. Dewa Gede Hari Wisana, Dyah Titisari, Lamidi Lamidi, Rismayani Rismayani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


High accuracy and a real-time system are priorities in the development of a prosthetic hand. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a real-time embedded time-domain feature extraction and machine learning on a system on chip (SoC) Raspberry platform using a multi-thread algorithm to operate a prosthetic hand device. The contribution of this study is that the implementation of the multi-thread in the pattern recognition improves the accuracy and decreases the computation time in the SoC. In this study, ten healthy volunteers were involved. The EMG signal was collected by using two dry electrodes placed on the wrist flexor and wrist extensor muscles. To reduce the complexity, four time-domain features were applied to extract the EMG signal. Furthermore, these features were used as the input of the machine learning. The machine learning evaluated in this study were k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Naive Bayes (NB), decision tree (DT), and support vector machine (SVM). In the SoC implementation, the data acquisition, feature extraction, machine learning, and motor control process were implemented using a multi-thread algorithm. After the evaluation, the result showed that the pairing of the MAV feature and machine learning DT resulted in higher accuracy among other combinations (98.41%) with a computation time of ~1 ms. The implementation of the multi-thread algorithm in the pattern recognition system resulted in significant impact on the time processing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number191
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • EMG
  • Embedded system
  • Machine learning
  • Multi-thread
  • Prosthetic hand
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Time-domain feature


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