Enhanced Magnetism by Temperature Induced Defects in Reduced Graphene Oxide Prepared from Coconut Shells

Darminto*, Retno Asih, Kurniasari, Malik Anjelh Baqiya, Salim Mustofa, Suasmoro, Takayuki Kawamata, Takayuki Kato, Isao Watanabe, Yoji Koike

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Magnetism of graphene-based compounds has drawn growing interest owing to its tunability by various defects presented in the compounds. Reduced graphene oxides (rGOs), particularly, provide an ideal playground as they have significant defects and functional groups on their layers. Herein, we propose a green synthesize method, a simple way in preparing rGO from coconut shells. The rGO has been synthesized from coconut shells by thermal reduction process at 400 °C, 600 °C, and 1000 °C followed by an exfoliation process. We found that the rGO sample prepared at 1000 °C (rGO-1000) exhibits stronger room temperature magnetization, where the saturation magnetization increases approximately 35 times as large as those prepared at 400 °C (rGO-400) and 600 °C (rGO-600). The concentration of defects increases and the oxygen-containing functional groups reduce with an increase in the heating temperatures, contributing to the increment in magnetization. The observed results in this paper indicate that defect-induced magnetism of the obtained rGO can be enhanced by controlling the temperature in the reduction process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8452145
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018


  • Coconut shell
  • defect
  • magnetic hysteresis
  • reduced graphene oxide (rGO)


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