Ergonomic Design of Apron Bus with Consideration for Passengers with Mobility Constraints

Ma Janice J. Gumasing, Yogi Tri Prasetyo*, Ardvin Kester S. Ong, Maria Rebeka Isabel M. Carcellar, John Brixter J. Aliado, Reny Nadlifatin, Satria Fadil Persada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Passengers in an apron bus are usually subjected to a standing position because of its limited seats and capacity. Due to this, passengers, especially those with mobility constraints, may expose themselves to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks such as body pain, discomfort, and non-collision injuries. The purpose of this study is to design an ergonomic apron bus to aid the musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by passengers with mobility constraints, specifically the elderly, pregnant women, mothers carrying infants, and persons needing wheelchair assistance. A total of 149 participants are involved in the study. Corlett’s and Bishop’s body discomfort questionnaires and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) are utilized to evaluate the respondent’s experience of discomfort in different regions of their body. The results show that passengers with mobility constraints experience body discomfort during the apron bus ride. The prevalence of body discomfort is evident in the lower back, knee, thigh, arm, shoulder, and middle back. Finally, principles of anthropometry are used in the study along with quality function deployment (QFD), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the feasibility of the recommended ergonomic design of the apron bus. To meet the requirements of people with disabilities, the ergonomic design of an apron bus is created to minimize the risk of exposure of passengers to certain musculoskeletal discomfort, maximize the space, minimize the delay time of the airlines, and be able to prioritize passengers who require mobility assistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number33
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • MSD
  • REBA
  • apron bus
  • mobility constraints


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