The preparation of Co-doped magnetite ferrofluids from natural sand was developed using a double-layer technique. The Co-doped magnetite nanoparticles formed a spinel phase with lattice parameters in the range of 8.355–8.422 Å and tended to agglomerate with the particle sizes of 7–12 nm. The presence of the first and second layers from oleic acid and DMSO was detected by the infrared spectrum as well as the olive oil used as a carrier liquid. The saturation magnetization of the superparamagnetic samples decreased from 24.4 to 4.8 emu/g with decreasing Co2+ composition. The particle size and electrostatic forces between the magnetic particles and the microbes played an essential role in inhibiting microbial growth. Interestingly, the increasing Co2+ composition enhanced the superior performance of the ferrofluids against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans. With additional extensive investigation, we believe that the prepared Co-doped magnetite double-layered ferrofluids from natural sand with superior antimicrobial performance can be new significant antimicrobial agents.
- Antimicrobial agent
- Co-doped magnetite