Exploring distance decay pattern of public transport-induced agglomeration and its impacts on train ridership attraction

S. Nurlaela, J. Xia, D. Tuladhar, T. Lin, P. Lie

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Public transport infrastructure creates the effect of agglomeration through transportation externalities. Effective density is an accessibility based agglomeration that was raised as a positive externality from public transportation investments. The aim of this paper is to understand whether public transport facility would induce agglomeration around stations and furthermore induce train ridership. A methodology was developed to reveal the causality of effective density on ridership and reduce the confounding effects from land use-related determinant factor. This was shown by the propensity score matching that tested if effect of a station being in the treatment group (high effective density stations) on train ridership was influenced by land use characteristics of catchment stations. The causality of effective density on ridership was compared between station groups. Findings showed the effect of treatment group was higher in the matched sample compare to the unmatched sample. This difference may be assigned as the true effect of public transport induced agglomeration which was higher after controlling the land use characteristics of stations. Thus, the inclusion of land use variables in the model prediction may has the effect of rendering the influence of effective density variable lower in the model. These findings could guide station catchment area planning to maximise effective density benefits on train ridership.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012051
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes
Event2017 CITIES International Conference: Multi Perspectives on Peri-Urban Dynamics Towards Sustainable Development - Surabaya, Indonesia
Duration: 18 Oct 2017 → …


  • agglomeration
  • effective density
  • propensity score matching
  • public transport infrastructure
  • train ridership


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