Extraction of essential oil from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) with supercritical carbon dioxide

Amelia Peterson, Siti Machmudah, Bhupesh C. Roy, Motonobu Goto*, Mitsuru Sasaki, Tsutomu Hirose

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of geranium essential oil from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) using supercritical carbon dioxide solvent. The extraction yield was measured as a function of pressure, temperature and carbon dioxide flow rate. At low pressure (10 MPa) and high temperature (343 K), waxes were co-extracted with the essential oil, resulting in artificially elevated essential oil extraction yields as no method was available with the SFE apparatus used to separate co-extracted waxes and oil. At high pressure (30 MPa) and low temperature (313 K), the amount of wax co-extracted decreased. Under these 'optimum' conditions, the extraction yield increased with decrease in flow rate giving a maximum extraction yield of 2.53%. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect of pressure and extraction time on oil composition was studied. The percentage compositions of terpene hydrocarbons, terpenols, geraniol and geranyl esters were significantly affected by pressure and extraction time. The oil samples obtained by SFE were also compared with commercially obtained steam distilled samples. All major components of the commercially obtained oils were present in the SFE-obtained oils; however, the percentage composition of the major components differed greatly between steam distilled and SFE oils.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-172
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Geraniol
  • Geranium
  • Pelargonium graveolens
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide
  • Supercritical fluid extraction


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