Violacein and its biosynthesis by-product deoxyviolacein are valuable natural pigments with different biological activities. Various efforts have been made to enhance violacein and deoxyviolacein production in microbes. However, the effect of different culture media, agitation, and fungal elicitation on biosynthesis in Janthinobacterium has not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of eight different culture media, agitation, and fungal elicitation by Agaricus bisporus on violacein and deoxviolacein production in Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum DSM 9628 and Janthinobacterium lividum DSM 1552 were examined. The results showed that violacein and deoxviolacein are produced at high-levels when Janthinobacterium is cultivated in minimal media such as Davis minimal broth with glycerol (DMBgly), shipworm basal medium (SBM), and MM9 media. A 50-fold increase was observed in violacein production when Janthinobacterium was cultivated in these media compared to cultivation in Luria–Bertani (LB), nutrient broth (NB), and King’s B (KB). Agitation reduces violacein and deoxyviolacein production, while fungal elicitation decreases violacein but increases deoxyviolacein when Janthinobacterium is cultured in KB media, SBM, and modified SBM (MSBM). An antibacterial assay using various pathogenic bacteria showed that violacein and deoxyviolacein extracted from Janthinobacterium are effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, confirming their functionality as antibacterial agents. The findings suggest that cultivation in minimal media and fungal elicitation might invoke a stress response, enhancing the production of violacein and deoxviolacein in Janthinobacterium.
- minimal media
- natural resources