Friction Losses During Slip Conditions in Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles

Agung Prijo Budijono*, I. Nyoman Sutantra, Agus Sigit Pramono

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The regenerative braking system (RBS) in electric vehicles (EVs) enhances its capability against internal combustion engines (ICE). Antilock braking system (ABS) is widely used in RBS because of its maneuverability and safety. One of the purposes of applying ABS is to avoid slippage. Slip on the braking process, especially hydraulic brakes, results in a difference in time to stop the wheels and the vehicle. It is avoided because it relies on friction between the tires and the road to stop transportation. Timing results showed that ABS with high frequency, above 30 Hz, tended to act like hydraulic brakes. Hydraulic brakes achieved the highest time difference, 8 seconds at 2250 rpm. It increased the distance of 350 m in slipping while the lowest time difference ABS 10 Hz owned, 0.1 seconds at the same rpm. Slips caused losses. These losses could be minimized with low-frequency ABS. It converted the friction between the wheels and the brakes into electrical energy instead of stopping the vehicle. As a result, the 10 Hz ABS had the highest potency stored despite the lowest performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-108
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Mechanical Engineering
Issue numberSpecial Issue 1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Antilock Braking System
  • Braking Process
  • Electric Vehicles
  • Friction Losses
  • Regenerative Braking


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