75 Citations (Scopus)


Maritime safety in the Malacca Strait is an important issue. The Strait of Malacca is the longest strait in the world (1120 km) and is classified as a high-risk area for navigation. The 800-km (500-mile) long Malacca Strait, linking Europe and the Middle East to the Asia-Pacific, carries about 40% of world trade. The strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as those of India, China, Japan, and South Korea. In this paper, hazard identification and risk evaluation are established as steps of a formal safety assessment for ship collisions. The inputs of a fuzzification are obtained from a failure mode and effects analysis, which includes risk factors such as occurrence (O), severity (S), and detection (D). The risk factors O, S, and D are evaluated using the fuzzy method. The actual sea-traffic condition data are collected by means of Automatic Identification System equipment that is installed at Kobe University, Japan, and the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Johor, Malaysia. Those data are applied to establish the methods with the help of the Geographic Information System.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-104
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Simulation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • AIS
  • fuzzy FMEA
  • risk evaluation
  • ship collisions


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