Purpose: In recent years, halal food industries are facing a high level of competition. The growing demand for halal food means firms are working hard to improve quality and reduce halal food defects. The purpose of this study is to propose a halal-based six sigma (SS) framework that could be used to reduce halal food defects and improve compliance. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed halal six sigma (HSS) framework has five phases based on the define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) approach. The proposed framework also integrates halal assurance system requirements into HSS to ensure compliance. Tools used in the proposed model include SIPOC tools, Pareto diagram, root cause analysis and the improvement process flows. A case study in a chicken meat company is used to test and validate the proposed framework. In case of study research, brainstorming was used to review an initial proposed framework and focus group discussions were used to determine feasible improvement actions. Findings: The results showed that the proposed HSS framework could be effective to detect and reduce the halal defects and lower the halal defect costs. By adopting the framework, the case firm was able to lower halal defect costs significantly and increase the SS level. Practical implications: SS approach can be designed and adapted to specific food industry. HSS framework could provide a systematic approach to reduce halal food defects and sustain the improvement efforts. The proposed HSS framework is also easy to use to understand halal critical points and improve halal compliance. Originality/value: This study proposed a HSS framework that can be adopted to reduce halal food defects and costs. This proposed framework will benefit the halal food industry intending to realize zero halal food defects and lower production costs. The limited number of publications in the research theme of halal food defects show that there is a significant gap in the existing body of knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)776-793
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Islamic Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Chicken meat industry
  • Defects and costs
  • Halal food
  • Improvement programme
  • Six sigma


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