Haptic/virtual reality orthopedic surgical simulators: a literature review

Adlina Syamlan, Fathurachman, Kathleen Denis, Emmanuel Vander Poorten, Bambang Pramujati, Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a review of surgical simulators, developed to enhance the learning process of surgical procedures, that involves bones, ranging from musculoskeletal system (orthopedics) and the skull (ENT and neurosurgeries). The paper highlights the specific challenges in terms of the extended reality representation of surgical training along with its latest advances. The study gathers journal and conference proceedings from various database sources (bibliographic databases and online search engines) that fulfills a predetermined eligibility criterion. From the search, 185 journals were found but only 144 met the inclusion criteria. Surgical simulators emerge as a promising alternative to aid residents in surgical training. It encompasses surgical procedures done in the craniomaxillofacial, joints, limbs and spine section of the human body. The study was partially supported by internal grant STG/19/047 from KU Leuven.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1795-1825
Number of pages31
JournalVirtual Reality
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Haptics
  • Muscle memory
  • Orthopedics
  • Surgical simulator
  • Training


Dive into the research topics of 'Haptic/virtual reality orthopedic surgical simulators: a literature review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this