Hydrochar Production through the HTC Process: Case Study of Municipal Solid Waste Samples in East Java, Indonesia

R. Hantoro, E. Septyaningrum, B. Budi Siswanto*, M. Fahmi Izdiharrudin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is one of the main issues towards sustainable development. Various technologies are studied to solve it. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an appropriate technology selection to reduce the waste volume primarily and to utilize MSW as the energy source because of its high the calorific value inside. This paper describes the potential of hydrochar production of raw materials in the provinces of East Java, Indonesia. The hydrochar production can be used as a secondary char and for electrical generation if it is combined with gasification process. The waste material affected the quality of combustion and calorific value to the product. The proximate and ultimate analysis using ASTM methods was conducted to analyze the characteristics of hydrochar. The influences of the HTC temperatures at saturated pressure (220°C, 23 bar) and variations of the feedstock moisture content (20–60%) were studied using a simulation of HTC process. The average calorific value of hydrochar is increased 32% of waste materials, 70% hydrochar yield, and 84% energy efficiency. This value indicates that the HTC process can produce hydrochar, moreover it reduced the mass of waste materials, also increased the energy content of products and the energy efficiency is a potential of energy generation from waste materials in an area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-426
Number of pages9
JournalSolid Fuel Chemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • East Java, Indonesia
  • hydrochar
  • hydrothermal carbonization
  • municipal solid waste
  • secondary char


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