Impact of Traffic Volume on the Pollution Cost, Value of Time, and Travel Time Cost in Jakarta City Centre Area

Asep Yayat Nurhidayat, Hera Widyastuti*, Sutikno, Dwi Phalita Upahita, Annissa Roschyntawati

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Traffic congestion is one of the major concerns in the transportation system. The domination of private car as the primary mode of transport in big cities, including Jakarta, has caused negative impacts such as increase of congestion and air pollution. Traffic congestion in Jakarta can be considered quite severe, with an average travel speed of only 15 km/hour. Meanwhile, the use of public transportation continues to decline. Traffic congestion causes high fuel consumption, increased vehicle operation cost, increased travel time, reduced air quality, and increased traffic accident rate. This study aims to analyze the impact of traffic congestion by using congestion cost as a proxy to represent the potential loss. Two major roads in Jakarta, Gadjah Mada and Hayam Wuruk Street were chosen as the study location. The total generalized cost was calculated from several aspects: vehicle operation cost, pollution cost, and time value, based on the actual and perceived traffic conditions. The congestion cost was calculated as the differences between actual condition and perceived condition. It represents the potential loss caused by traffic congestion. The result shows a significant increase in vehicle operation cost, pollution cost, and value of time due to congestion. The results also indicate that users perceived lower travel time and generalized cost than the actual condition. The congestion cost in Hayam Wuruk Street is IDR 12.149/vehicle, while congestion cost for Gadjah Mada Street is IDR 11.692/vehicle. It means that users experienced higher potential loss due to congestion in Hayam Wuruk Street than Gadjah Mada Street. The result can be served as the basis for developing the implementation model of congestion cost in Jakarta.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3209-3220
Number of pages12
JournalCivil Engineering and Architecture
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023


  • Congestion
  • Pollution
  • The Value of Time
  • Travel Cost


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